Bibliography & Credits

  • Bonsall, Isaac. Superintendent’s Day Book, Friends Hospital Records, Quaker and Special Collections, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania.
  • Caleb Cresson Letters, Folder 1, Box 16, Families of Philadelphia Collection, Quaker and Special Collections, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania.
  • Case Histories, Friends Hospital Records, Quaker and Special Collections, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania.
  • Daily Record Books, Friends Hospital Records, Quaker and Special Collections, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania.
  • Medical Registers, Friends Hospital Records, Quaker and Special Collections, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania.
  • Minutes and Register of the Committee of Admission, Friends Hospital Records, Quaker and Special Collections, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania.
  • Minutes of the Contributors to the Asylum, Friends Hospital Records, Quaker and Special Collections, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania.
  • Minutes of the Friends' Asylum Building Committee, Friends Hospital Records, Quaker and Special Collections, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania.
  • Minutes of the Managers, Friends Hospital Records, Quaker and Special Collections, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania.
  • Minutes of the Visiting Committee, Friends Hospital Records, Quaker and Special Collections, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania.
  • Scull family papers, Quaker and Special Collections, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania.
  • Superintendent’s Daybook, Friends Hospital Records, Quaker and Special Collections, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania.
  • Account of the Rise and Progress of the Asylum: Proposed to be Established, near Philadelphia, for the Relief of Persons Deprived of the Use of their Reason. With an Account of the Retreat, a Similar Institution near York, in England. Philadelphia: Kimber and Conrad, 1814.
  • Bucknill, John Charles, and Daniel Hack Tuke. A Manual of Psychological Medicine. Containing the Lunacy Laws, the Nosology, Ætiology, Statistics, Description, Diagnosis, Pathology, and Treatment of Insanity. With an Appendix of Cases. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lindsay and Blakiston, 1879.
  • Cherry, Charles L. A Quiet Haven: Quakers, Moral Treatment, and Asylum Reform. Cranbury: Associated University Presses, 1989.
  • Committee on Mad-houses in England, House of Commons, Great Britain. and James Birch Sharpe. Report . . . from the Committee : Appointed to Consider of Provision Being Made for the Better Regulation of Madhouses in England . . . London: Baldwin Cradock and Joy, 1815.
  • D’Antonio, Patricia. Founding Friends: Families, Staff, and Patients at the Friends' Asylum in Early Nineteenth Century Philadelphia. Bethlehem: Lehigh University Press, 2006.
  • “Deaf and Dumb.” Philadelphia Recorder, July 10, 1824.
  • Digby, Anne. “Moral Treatment at the Retreat, 1796-1846.” In The Anatomy of Madness Volume II, edited by W.F. Bynum, Roy Porter, and Michael Shepherd, 52-72. London: Tavistock Publications, 1985.
  • “Dr. Anna Elizabeth Broomall,” Changing the Face of Medicine.
  • Eddy, Thomas. “Hints for Introducing an Improved Mode of Treating the Insane in the Asylum.” 1815.
  • The Family Magazine, Or, Monthly Abstract of General Knowledge. New York: Redfield & Lindsay, 1837.
  • Frost, Jerry W. “As the Twig Is Bent: Quaker Ideas of Childhood.” Quaker History 60, no. 2 (1971): 67–87.
  • Further Information of the Progress of the Asylum for the Relief of Persons Deprived of the Use of Their Reason. Philadelphia: Richardson, 1818.
  • Gale, T. Electricity, or Ethereal Fire, Considered. Troy: Moffitt and Lyon, 1802.
  • Godlee, Fiona. “Aspects of Non-Conformity: Quakers and the Lunatic Fringe.” In The Anatomy of Madness Volume II, edited by W.F. Bynum, Roy Porter, and Michael Shepherd, 73-82. London: Tavistock Publications, 1985.
  • Hamm, Thomas D. The Transformation of American Quakerism: Orthodox Friends, 1800-1907. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1988.
  • Hastings, William S. “Robert Waln, Jr.: Quaker Satirist and Historian.” The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 76, no. 1 (1952): 71–80.
  • Herlihy, David V. Bicycle: A History. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004.
  • Hurd, Henry, M., William F. Drewry, Richard Dewey, Charles W. Pilgrim, G. Alder Blumer, and T. J. W. Burgess. The Institutional Care of the Insane in the United States and Canada. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins Press.
  • Nash, Gary B. First City: Philadelphia and the Forging of Historical Memory. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001.
  • Prichard, James. A Treatise on Insanity and Other Disorders Affecting the Mind. Philadelphia: Haswell, Barrington, and Haswell, 1837.
  • Reiss, Benjamin. Theaters of Madness: Insane Asylums and Nineteenth-Century American Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008.
  • Rush, Benjamin. Medical Inquiries and Observations, upon the Diseases of the Mind. Philadelphia: Kimber & Richardson, 1812.
  • Scull, Andrew. Madness in Civilization: A Cultural History of Insanity, from the Bible to Freud, from the Madhouse to Modern Medicine. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015.
  • Spurzheim, Johann Christoph. Observations on the Deranged Manifestations of the Mind, or Insanity. Gainesville, FL: Scholars’ Facsimiles and Reprints, 1970.
  • Toll, Jean Barth, and Mildred S. Gillam, eds. Invisible Philadelphia: Community through Voluntary Organizations. Philadelphia: Atwater Kent Museum, 1995.
  • Tuke, Samuel. Description of the Retreat, An Institution Near York for Insane Persons of the Religious Society of Friends, Containing an Account of its Origin and Progress, the Modes of Treatment, and a Statement of Cases. London: Dawsons of Pall Mall, 1813.
  • “Vision: A Transformative Voice for the 21st Century.” ScattergoodFoundation.org, 2016. http://www.scattergoodfoundation.org/vision.
  • Waller, John C. Health and Wellness in 19th-Century America. Santa Barabara: Greenwood, 2014.
  • Waln, Robert Jr. An Account of the Asylum for the Insane, Established by the Society of Friends, Near Frankford, in the Vicinity of Philadelphia. Philadelphia: Benjamin and Thomas Kite, 1825.
  • de Young, Mary. Encyclopedia of Asylum Therapeutics, 1750-1950s. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, 2015.
  • Barbour, Hugh and J. William Frost. The Quakers. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988.
  • Brodsky, Alyn. Benjamin Rush: Patriot and Physician. New York: Truman Talley Books, 2004.
  • Cherry, Charles L. A Quiet Haven: Quakers, Moral Treatment, and Asylum Reform. Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Presses, 1989.
  • Delbourgo, James. A Most Amazing Scene of Wonders: Electricity and Enlightenment in Early America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2006.
  • Deutsch, Albert. The Mentally Ill in America: A History of their Care and Treatment from Colonial Times. New York: Columbia University Press, 1967.
  • Evans, Charles. Account of the Asylum for the Relief of Persons Deprived of the Use of their Reason near Frankford, Pennsylvania: with the Statistics of the Institution from its Foundation to the 31st 12th month, 1838. Philadelphia: T.K. and P.G. Collins, 1839.
  • “Glossary of Quaker Terms and Concepts.” New York Yearly Meeting. Accessed July 14, 2015. http://www.nyym.org/?q=glossary.
  • Goodheart, Lawrence B. Mad Yankees: The Hartford Retreat for the Insane and Nineteenth-Century Psychiatry. Boston: University of Massachusetts Press, 2003.
  • Gough, John Parker. An Essay on Cantharides; Comprising a Brief Account, of their Natural History, an Inquiry into their Mode of Operation, and their use in Diseases: with Some Remarks Relative to the Time when they Should be Employed. Philadelphia: Way and Groff, 1800.
  • Ingle, Larry H. Quakers in Conflict: The Hicksite Reformation. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1986.
  • Porter, Roy. Madness: A Brief History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.
  • “Quakers and Slavery Glossary.” Quakers and Slavery. Accessed July 14, 2015. http://trilogy.brynmawr.edu/speccoll/quakersandslavery/resources/glossary.php.
  • Scull, Andrew. Madness: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
  • Tomes, Nancy. A Generous Confidence: Thomas Story Kirkbride and the Art of Asylum-Keeping, 1840-1883. New York: University of Cambridge Press, 1984.

Student Curators

Summer 2017:

  • Alison Rosenman '20, Mercer Island, WA
  • Major/Minor: Computer Science/Economics
  • I worked with Claire this summer to understand the Asylum's patients in closer detail. I created the visualizations throughout the website which focus on religious diversity and how gender affected patients' treatments and experiences, as well as the map of patient hometowns. I hope that these visualizations bring the data from Haverford's Friends’ Asylum collection to life and that future scholarship can come out of our work for the summer.

  • Claire Michel '18, New York, NY
  • Major/Minor: Pyschology/Economics
  • I have been working, along with Alison, to research and describe what it was like for individuals of different religions, genders, and races within the asylum. I conducted research in Haverford’s Special Collection on the different experiences of unique individuals in order to paint a more complete picture of life in the asylum. The research I have been doing has become part of a essay on what it was like to live in the asylum with different identities.

Summer 2016:

  • James Truitt '17, Washington, DC
  • Major/Minor: History/Linguistics
  • Along with Maddie, I did research and wrote labels for Deprived of the Use of their Reason. In addition to curating the exhibit, I wrote a short piece on patient employment and amusement. I hope that our exhibition will encourage others to explore the rich history of Friends' Asylum.

  • Madison Arnold-Scerbo '18, Red Lion, PA
  • Major/Minor: History/Museum Studies
  • I worked alongside James to curate and write labels for the physical exhibit Deprived of the Use of their Reason that will be on display in the Sharpless Gallery of Haverford's Magill Library. We spent most of the summer reading through materials in the collection and writing labels for them. I also created data visualizations about the type and causes of mental illness at Friends' Asylum which can be found throughout this website.

Summer 2015:

  • Abby Corcoran '17, Greensboro, NC
  • Major/Minor: History/English
  • Along with Lindsay, I spent the summer researching the early history of the Friends' Asylum. I looked at how the founders' Quakerism influenced their ideas about the curability mental illness, and wrote an essay using this research. The research that Lindsay and I have been doing will create a framework for future projects about Quakers and mental health, which will be housed on the website that Lindsay has created.

  • Lindsay Silver '15, Hingham, MA
  • Major/Minors: English/Computer Science, Spanish
  • Working in conjunction with Abby, I am creating a website which focuses on the framing research she has been doing all summer. For the website, I am also looking at ways we can extract data from the collection which can then be included in interesting and interactive visualizations online. I also hope to create the website in such a way as to lay the groundwork for future digital projects related to Quakers and mental health.

Additional Coordinators

  • Terry Snyder, Librarian of the College
  • Darin Hayton, Historian of Science
  • Laurie Allen, Coordinator for Digital Scholarship and Services
  • Sarah Horowitz, Head of Quaker & Special Collections
  • Mike Zarafonetis, Digital Scholarship Librarian
  • Emily Thaisrivongs, Metadata Librarian
  • Archival Sources
    • Bonsall, Isaac. Superintendent’s Day Book, Friends Hospital Records, Quaker and Special Collections, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania.
    • Caleb Cresson Letters, Folder 1, Box 16, Families of Philadelphia Collection, Quaker and Special Collections, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania.
    • Case Histories, Friends Hospital Records, Quaker and Special Collections, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania.
    • Daily Record Books, Friends Hospital Records, Quaker and Special Collections, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania.
    • Medical Registers, Friends Hospital Records, Quaker and Special Collections, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania.
    • Minutes and Register of the Committee of Admission, Friends Hospital Records, Quaker and Special Collections, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania.
    • Minutes of the Contributors to the Asylum, Friends Hospital Records, Quaker and Special Collections, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania.
    • Minutes of the Friends' Asylum Building Committee, Friends Hospital Records, Quaker and Special Collections, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania.
    • Minutes of the Managers, Friends Hospital Records, Quaker and Special Collections, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania.
    • Minutes of the Visiting Committee, Friends Hospital Records, Quaker and Special Collections, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania.
    • Scull family papers, Quaker and Special Collections, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania.
    • Superintendent’s Daybook, Friends Hospital Records, Quaker and Special Collections, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania.
  • Published Sources
    • Account of the Rise and Progress of the Asylum: Proposed to be Established, near Philadelphia, for the Relief of Persons Deprived of the Use of their Reason. With an Account of the Retreat, a Similar Institution near York, in England. Philadelphia: Kimber and Conrad, 1814.
    • D’Antonio, Patricia. Founding Friends: Families, Staff, and Patients at the Friends' Asylum in Early Nineteenth Century Philadelphia. Bethlehem: Lehigh University Press, 2006.
    • Digby, Anne. “Moral Treatment at the Retreat, 1796-1846.” In The Anatomy of Madness Volume II, edited by W.F. Bynum, Roy Porter, and Michael Shepherd, 52-72. London: Tavistock Publications, 1985.
    • Eddy, Thomas. “Hints for Introducing an Improved Mode of Treating the Insane in the Asylum.” 1815. Gale, T. Electricity, or Ethereal Fire, Considered. Troy: Moffitt and Lyon, 1802.
    • Godlee, Fiona. “Aspects of Non-Conformity: Quakers and the Lunatic Fringe.” In The Anatomy of Madness Volume II, edited by W.F. Bynum, Roy Porter, and Michael Shepherd, 73-82. London: Tavistock Publications, 1985.
    • Herlihy, David V. Bicycle: A History. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004.
    • Spurzheim, Johann Christoph. Observations on the Deranged Manifestations of the Mind, or Insanity. Gainesville, FL: Scholars’ Facsimiles and Reprints, 1970.
    • Tuke, Samuel. Description of the Retreat, An Institution Near York for Insane Persons of the Religious Society of Friends, Containing an Account of its Origin and Progress, the Modes of Treatment, and a Statement of Cases. London: Dawsons of Pall Mall, 1813.
    • Waln, Robert Jr. An Account of the Asylum for the Insane, Established by the Society of Friends, Near Frankford, in the Vicinity of Philadelphia. Philadelphia: Benjamin and Thomas Kite, 1825.
  • Further Reading
    • Barbour, Hugh and J. William Frost. The Quakers. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988.
    • Bucknill, John Charles, and Daniel Hack Tuke. A Manual of Psychological Medicine. Containing the Lunacy Laws, the Nosology, Ætiology, Statistics, Description, Diagnosis, Pathology, and Treatment of Insanity. With an Appendix of Cases. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lindsay and Blakiston, 1879.
    • Brodsky, Alyn. Benjamin Rush: Patriot and Physician. New York: Truman Talley Books, 2004.
    • Committee on Mad-houses in England, House of Commons, Great Britain. and James Birch Sharpe. Report . . . from the Committee : Appointed to Consider of Provision Being Made for the Better Regulation of Madhouses in England . . . London: Baldwin Cradock and Joy, 1815.
    • Cherry, Charles L. A Quiet Haven: Quakers, Moral Treatment, and Asylum Reform. Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Presses, 1989.
    • Delbourgo, James. A Most Amazing Scene of Wonders: Electricity and Enlightenment in Early America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2006.
    • Deutsch, Albert. The Mentally Ill in America: A History of their Care and Treatment from Colonial Times. New York: Columbia University Press, 1967.
    • Evans, Charles. Account of the Asylum for the Relief of Persons Deprived of the Use of their Reason near Frankford, Pennsylvania: with the Statistics of the Institution from its Foundation to the 31st 12th month, 1838. Philadelphia: T.K. and P.G. Collins, 1839.
    • “Glossary of Quaker Terms and Concepts.” New York Yearly Meeting. Accessed July 14, 2015. http://www.nyym.org/?q=glossary.
    • Goodheart, Lawrence B. Mad Yankees: The Hartford Retreat for the Insane and Nineteenth-Century Psychiatry. Boston: University of Massachusetts Press, 2003.
    • Gough, John Parker. An Essay on Cantharides; Comprising a Brief Account, of their Natural History, an Inquiry into their Mode of Operation, and their use in Diseases: with Some Remarks Relative to the Time when they Should be Employed. Philadelphia: Way and Groff, 1800.
    • Hamm, Thomas. The Transformation of American Quakerism: Orthodox Friends, 1800-1907. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1988.
    • Ingle, Larry H. Quakers in Conflict: The Hicksite Reformation. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1986.
    • Porter, Roy. Madness: A Brief History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.
    • “Quakers and Slavery Glossary.” Quakers and Slavery. Accessed July 14, 2015. http://trilogy.brynmawr.edu/speccoll/quakersandslavery/resources/glossary.php.
    • Scull, Andrew. Madness: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
    • Tomes, Nancy. A Generous Confidence: Thomas Story Kirkbride and the Art of Asylum-Keeping, 1840-1883. New York: University of Cambridge Press, 1984.
  • Credits