American Asylums and Moral Treatment
In America, the Friends' Asylum was the first private asylum to be founded and run on the system of moral treatment. Several public hospitals, like the New York Hospital and the Pennsylvania Hospital, which served insane patients as well as others, began to try to implement moral treatment for their patients as well. These hospitals struggled to incorporate moral treatment into the systems they already had. Later, both hospitals opened separate buildings for their insane patients, which allowed them to complete their transitions to moral treatment because the new buildings were designed accordingly. Quakers were involved in the administration of both the Pennsylvania Hospital and the New York Hospital, although neither hospital was affiliated with the Society of Friends. In Connecticut, Dr. Eli Todd founded a private hospital, the Hartford Retreat, based on the example of the York Retreat. The Hartford Retreat was not Quaker at all. As can be seen from these other asylums, moral treatment was not necessarily a Quaker method. However, moral treatment at the York Retreat and the Friends' Asylum did take on a distinctly Quaker flavor.