Explanation of Terms
Dementia was originally coined as ‘demence’ in the early nineteenth century by French physician Philippe Pinel. He defined dementia as a "rapid succession or uninterrupted alternation of insulated ideas, and evanescent and unconnected emotions; continually repeated acts of extravagance complete forgetfulness of every previous state; diminished sensibility to external impressions; abolition of the faculty of judgment" (Pinel 6-7). Jean-Étienne Dominique Esquirol distinguished dementia from imbecility and idiocy: the former involved a regression in understanding and sensibility, whereas in the latter it never properly developed (Esquirol 177).
Also referred to as ‘raving madness,’ mania was the most commonly ascribed type of insanity at Friends’ Asylum. In 1837, the English physician James Prichard described mania as full derangement of the understanding (as opposed to other types of mental illness involving only partial derangement), with the mind in perpetual confusion (Prichard 4).
Until the 1830s, melancholia referred to all types of partial intellectual derangement (as opposed to mania, the term used for full derangement of the mental faculties). After that, melancholia became most commonly used to describe illnesses marked by a gloomy and sullen demeanor. In the 1870s English physicians John C. Bucknill and Daniel H. Tuke explain that while the symptoms include being “cheerless, moody, and taciturn,” melancholia was usually not accompanied by delusions or mental inactivity (Bucknill and Tuke 220).
Monomania was a type of partial insanity in which a person showed deluded judgement only on certain subjects and otherwise remained rational. In 1845, French physician Jean-Étienne Dominique Esquirol explained that monomania could be accompanied by a variety of factors including delirium, reasoning, or homicidal tendencies (Esquirol 319-376).
This chart provides more detailed information about the causal data. The first column lists the simplified cause used in the visualizations, and the second column lists the specific cause that was listed in the original manuscript materials, along with any relevant background information about the cause.